TITLE 12 > CHAPTER 41 > § 4002

Prev | Next

§ 4002. Expedited funds availability schedules

 

Release date: 2005-07-21

 

(a) Next business day availability for certain deposits

(1) Cash deposits; wire transfers

Except as provided in subsection (e) of this section and in section 4003 of this title, in any case in which—

(A) any cash is deposited in an account at a receiving depository institution staffed by individuals employed by such institution, or

(B) funds are received by a depository institution by wire transfer for deposit in an account at such institution,

such cash or funds shall be available for withdrawal not later than the business day after the business day on which such cash is deposited or such funds are received for deposit.

(2) Government checks; certain other checks

Funds deposited in an account at a depository institution by check shall be available for withdrawal not later than the business day after the business day on which such funds are deposited in the case of—

(A) a check which—

(i) is drawn on the Treasury of the United States; and

(ii) is endorsed only by the person to whom it was issued;

(B) a check which—

(i) is drawn by a State;

(ii) is deposited in a receiving depository institution which is located in such State and is staffed by individuals employed by such institution;

(iii) is deposited with a special deposit slip which indicates it is a check drawn by a State; and

(iv) is endorsed only by the person to whom it was issued;

(C) a check which—

(i) is drawn by a unit of general local government;

(ii) is deposited in a receiving depository institution which is located in the same State as such unit of general local government and is staffed by individuals employed by such institution;

(iii) is deposited with a special deposit slip which indicates it is a check drawn by a unit of general local government; and

(iv) is endorsed only by the person to whom it was issued;

(D) the first $100 deposited by check or checks on any one business day;

(E) a check deposited in a branch of a depository institution and drawn on the same or another branch of the same depository institution if both such branches are located in the same State or the same check processing region;

(F) a cashier’s check, certified check, teller’s check, or depository check which—

(i) is deposited in a receiving depository institution which is staffed by individuals employed by such institution;

(ii) is deposited with a special deposit slip which indicates it is a cashier’s check, certified check, teller’s check, or depository check, as the case may be; and

(iii) is endorsed only by the person to whom it was issued.

(b) Permanent schedule

(1) Availability of funds deposited by local checks

Subject to paragraph (3) of this subsection, subsections (a)(2), (d), and (e) of this section, and section 4003 of this title, not more than 1 business day shall intervene between the business day on which funds are deposited in an account at a depository institution by a check drawn on a local originating depository institution and the business day on which the funds involved are available for withdrawal.

(2) Availability of funds deposited by nonlocal checks

Subject to paragraph (3) of this subsection, subsections (a)(2), (d), and (e) of this section, and section 4003 of this title, not more than 4 business days shall intervene between the business day on which funds are deposited in an account at a depository institution by a check drawn on a nonlocal originating depository institution and the business day on which such funds are available for withdrawal.

(3) Time period adjustments for cash withdrawal of certain checks

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), funds deposited in an account in a depository institution by check (other than a check described in subsection (a)(2) of this section) shall be available for cash withdrawal not later than the business day after the business day on which such funds otherwise are available under paragraph (1) or (2).

(B) 5 p.m. cash availability

Not more than $400 (or the maximum amount allowable in the case of a withdrawal from an automated teller machine but not more than $400) of funds deposited by one or more checks to which this paragraph applies shall be available for cash withdrawal not later than 5 o’clock post meridian of the business day on which such funds are available under paragraph (1) or (2). If funds deposited by checks described in both paragraph (1) and paragraph (2) become available for cash withdrawal under this paragraph on the same business day, the limitation contained in this subparagraph shall apply to the aggregate amount of such funds.

(C) $100 availability

Any amount available for withdrawal under this paragraph shall be in addition to the amount available under subsection (a)(2)(D) of this section.

(4) Applicability

This subsection shall apply with respect to funds deposited by check in an account at a depository institution on or after September 1, 1990, except that the Board may, by regulation, make this subsection or any part of this subsection applicable earlier than September 1, 1990.

(c) Temporary schedule

(1) Availability of local checks

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B) of this paragraph, subsections (a)(2), (d), and (e) of this section, and section 4003 of this title, not more than 2 business days shall intervene between the business day on which funds are deposited in an account at a depository institution by a check drawn on a local originating depository institution and the business day on which such funds are available for withdrawal.

(B) Time period adjustment for cash withdrawal of certain checks

(i) In general Except as provided in clause (ii), funds deposited in an account in a depository institution by check drawn on a local depository institution that is not a participant in the same check clearinghouse association as the receiving depository institution (other than a check described in subsection (a)(2) of this section) shall be available for cash withdrawal not later than the business day after the business day on which such funds otherwise are available under subparagraph (A).

(ii) 5 p.m. cash availability Not more than $400 (or the maximum amount allowable in the case of a withdrawal from an automated teller machine but not more than $400) of funds deposited by one or more checks to which this subparagraph applies shall be available for cash withdrawal not later than 5 o’clock post meridian of the business day on which such funds are available under subparagraph (A).

(iii) $100 availability Any amount available for withdrawal under this subparagraph shall be in addition to the amount available under subsection (a)(2)(D) of this section.

(2) Availability of nonlocal checks

Subject to subsections (a)(2), (d), and (e) of this section and section 4003 of this title, not more than 6 business days shall intervene between the business day on which funds are deposited in an account at a depository institution by a check drawn on a nonlocal originating depository institution and the business day on which such funds are available for withdrawal.

(3) Applicability

This subsection shall apply with respect to funds deposited by check in an account at a depository institution after August 31, 1988, and before September 1, 1990, except as may be otherwise provided under subsection (b)(4) of this section.

(d) Time period adjustments

(1) Reduction generally

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Board shall, by regulation, reduce the time periods established under subsections (b), (c), and (e) of this section to as short a time as possible and equal to the period of time achievable under the improved check clearing system for a receiving depository institution to reasonably expect to learn of the nonpayment of most items for each category of checks.

(2) Extension for certain deposits in noncontiguous States or territories

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any time period established under subsection (b), (c), or (e) of this section shall be extended by 1 business day in the case of any deposit which is both—

(A) deposited in an account at a depository institution which is located in Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands; and

(B) deposited by a check drawn on an originating depository institution which is not located in the same State, commonwealth, or territory as the receiving depository institution.

(e) Deposits at ATM

(1) Nonproprietary ATM

(A) In general

Not more than 4 business days shall intervene between the business day a deposit described in subparagraph (B) is made at a nonproprietary automated teller machine (for deposit in an account at a depository institution) and the business day on which funds from such deposit are available for withdrawal.

(B) Deposits described in this paragraph 1

A deposit is described in this subparagraph if it is—

(i) a cash deposit;

(ii) a deposit made by a check described in subsection (a)(2) of this section;

(iii) a deposit made by a check drawn on a local originating depository institution (other than a check described in subsection (a)(2) of this section); or

(iv) a deposit made by a check drawn on a nonlocal originating depository institution (other than a check described in subsection (a)(2) of this section).

(2) Proprietary ATM—temporary and permanent schedules

The provisions of subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section shall apply with respect to any funds deposited at a proprietary automated teller machine for deposit in an account at a depository institution.

(3) Study and report on ATM’s

The Board shall, either directly or through the Consumer Advisory Council, establish and maintain a dialogue with depository institutions and their suppliers on the computer software and hardware available for use by automated teller machines, and shall, not later than September 1 of each of the first 3 calendar years beginning after August 10, 1987, report to the Congress regarding such software and hardware and regarding the potential for improving the processing of automated teller machine deposits.

(f) Check return; notice of nonpayment

No provision of this section shall be construed as requiring that, with respect to all checks deposited in a receiving depository institution—

(1) such checks be physically returned to such depository institution; or

(2) any notice of nonpayment of any such check be given to such depository institution within the times set forth in subsection (a), (b), (c), or (e) of this section or in the regulations issued under any such subsection.

 

 

 

TITLE 12 > CHAPTER 41 > § 4004

Prev | Next

§ 4004. Disclosure of funds availability policies

 

Release date: 2005-07-21

 

(a) Notice for new accounts

Before an account is opened at a depository institution, the depository institution shall provide written notice to the potential customer of the specific policy of such depository institution with respect to when a customer may withdraw funds deposited into the customer’s account.

 

 

 

 

§ 4010. Civil liability

Release date: 2005-07-21

(a) Civil liability

Except as otherwise provided in this section, any depository institution which fails to comply with any requirement imposed under this chapter or any regulation prescribed under this chapter with respect to any person other than another depository institution is liable to such person in an amount equal to the sum of—

(1) any actual damage sustained by such person as a result of the failure;

(2)

(A) in the case of an individual action, such additional amount as the court may allow, except that the liability under this subparagraph shall not be less than $100 nor greater than $1,000; or

(B) in the case of a class action, such amount as the court may allow, except that—

(i) as to each member of the class, no minimum recovery shall be applicable; and

(ii) the total recovery under this subparagraph in any class action or series of class actions arising out of the same failure to comply by the same depository institution shall not be more than the lesser of $500,000 or 1 percent of the net worth of the depository institution involved; and

(3) in the case of any successful action to enforce the foregoing liability, the costs of the action, together with a reasonable attorney’s fee as determined by the court.

(b) Class action awards

In determining the amount of any award in any class action, the court shall consider, among other relevant factors—

(1) the amount of any actual damages awarded;

(2) the frequency and persistence of failures of compliance;

(3) the resources of the depository institution;

(4) the number of persons adversely affected; and

(5) the extent to which the failure of compliance was intentional.

(c) Bona fide errors

(1) General rule

A depository institution may not be held liable in any action brought under this section for a violation of this chapter if the depository institution demonstrates by a preponderance of the evidence that the violation was not intentional and resulted from a bona fide error, notwithstanding the maintenance of procedures reasonably adapted to avoid any such error.

(2) Examples

Examples of a bona fide error include clerical, calculation, computer malfunction and programming, and printing errors, except that an error of legal judgment with respect to a depository institution’s obligation under this chapter is not a bona fide error.

(d) Jurisdiction

Any action under this section may be brought in any United States district court, or in any other court of competent jurisdiction, within one year after the date of the occurrence of the violation involved.

(e) Reliance on Board rulings

No provision of this section imposing any liability shall apply to any act done or omitted in good faith in conformity with any rule, regulation, or interpretation thereof by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, notwithstanding the fact that after such act or omission has occurred, such rule, regulation, or interpretation is amended, rescinded, or determined by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason.

(f) Authority to establish rules regarding losses and liability among depository institutions

The Board is authorized to impose on or allocate among depository institutions the risks of loss and liability in connection with any aspect of the payment system, including the receipt, payment, collection, or clearing of checks, and any related function of the payment system with respect to checks. Liability under this subsection shall not exceed the amount of the check giving rise to the loss or liability, and, where there is bad faith, other damages, if any, suffered as a proximate consequence of any act or omission giving rise to the loss or liability.